By Ikley, Travis Legleiter, and Bill Johnson, Purdue University
This spring so far has been cold and wet with short spurts of warm sunny days in-between. This weather cycle for the most part kept producers out of field and allowed the winter annual weeds to flourish the past couple of weeks. As we look ahead to the next couple of weeks in hope of getting out to the fields to do spring no-till burndown applications, there are a couple of things to keep in mind.
Winter Annual Weeds
The warm periods of weather, particularly the last two weeks, along with the ample soil moisture have been beneficial for winter annual weed growth and early emerging summer annuals. A few winter annual weeds that we have noticed are chickweed, purple deadnettle, and henbit that are for the most part already flowering in much of the state. Cressleaf groundsel has begun flowering in southern Indiana.
Producers will need to make winter annual burndown applications quickly, once conditions allow them to get into fields. These weeds, specifically chickweed, can create mats that slow soil drying and delay planting. Although these annuals may already be flowing and nearing the end of their life cycle a timely burndown application will speed up the desiccation processes for quicker soil drying and timely planting.
This weed has no doubt been the biggest weed problem across Indiana the last couple of years and this spring is setting up to give it an advantage again. Any fall emerging marestail that survived the winter or was not controlled by a fall herbicide application has likely already begun to bolt and will be difficult to control if not treated soon. The spring emerging cohorts of marestail have likely started to emerge and will be very quickly gaining size if producers are kept out of fields by continued wet conditions.
Producers need to be aware of the size of marestail populations in fields and plan burndown treatments accordingly. The majority of marestail populations are glyphosate-resistant and must be controlled with other herbicides. Producers need to be aware of appropriate tank mixes and rates to control larger marestail populations that are glyphosate resistant.
For a more details of marestail control, specifically in no-till soybean, refer to our “Control of marestail in no-till soybean” publication.
The state of Indiana, according to personnel with NRCS, had approximately 1 million acres of cover crops planted this last fall. Some of the cover crop species are designed to be winter killed, although several will need to be terminated prior to corn or soybean planting.
Producers who seeded cover crops need to be aware of the proper timing, herbicides, and rates for termination applications for each specific cover crop species. Many of the cover crops are relatively easily controlled with 0.75 lb ae/A of glyphosate in early spring prior to corn or soybean planting.
The one cover crop that poses a larger challenge is annual ryegrass. When allowed to grow extensively in the spring annual ryegrass can be very difficult to terminate with herbicides and can become a weed itself. Producers need to make applications prior to annual ryegrass reaching 6 inches to ensure a successful termination. Much like marestail, the combination of the warm spells and wet soils keeping producers out of the field can lead to annual ryegrass cover crops growing beyond manageable heights.
Regardless of the size of the annual ryegrass there are a couple of keys that producers need to keep in mind when making their termination applications. Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide to terminate annual ryegrass and must be applied at 1.5 lb ae/A (2 quarts of a 3lb ae/gal glyphosate product) to ensure complete termination. Application of glyphosate also need to be applied when the annual ryegrass is actively growing or during a period in which nighttime low temperatures are greater than 450F.
It would also be a good idea to scout fields that have cover crops and see if marestail is present as well. If it is present do not rely just on glyphosate to terminate the cover crop. You will need to add sharpen, 2,4-D, or dicamba to glyphosate to control the marestail.