Home Indiana Agriculture News Twenty Four Percent of Indiana Corn Planted

Twenty Four Percent of Indiana Corn Planted

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Farmers made good progress with field preparations and planting most of
the week until rain showers arrived in some areas over the weekend,
according to the Indiana Field Office of USDA’s National Agricultural
Statistics Service. Many areas experienced frost during the week, but
the extent of damage to corn, soybeans, alfalfa, wheat, fruit and berry
crops is unknown at this time. Planting of corn is moving at a record
pace, well ahead of 2004 when approximately 10% of the acreage had been
planted at this time. Farmers have also established a record pace for
planting soybeans.

                      FIELD CROPS REPORT

Twenty-four percent of the intended corn acreage has been planted compared with 2 percent for both last year and the 5-year average. By area, 16 percent of the crop has been planted in the north, 26 percent in the central region, and 33 percent in the south. Three percent of corn acreage has emerged compared with 0 percent for both last year and the 5-year average. Five percent of the intended soybean acreage has been planted compared with 0 percent for both last year and the 5-year average.

Fifty-seven percent of the winter wheat acreage is jointed compared with 19 percent last year and 22 percent for the 5-year average. Nine percent of the winter wheat acreage has headed compared with 0 percent for both last year and the 5-year average. Winter wheat condition is rated 79 percent good to excellent compared with 58 percent last year at this time.



               LIVESTOCK, PASTURE AND RANGE REPORT

Livestock are reported to be in mostly good condition at this time.
Pasture condition is rated 77 percent good to excellent compared with 43
percent last year at this time. Hay supplies are rated 2 percent very
short, 14 percent short, 78 percent adequate and 6 percent surplus.

                        Crop Progress
-------------------------------------------------------
                      : This : Last : Last : 5-Year
    Crop              : Week : Week : Year :  Avg
-------------------------------------------------------
                                 Percent              

Corn Planted              24      6      2      2
Corn Emerged               3     NA      0      0
Soybeans planted           5     NA      0      0
Winter Wheat Jointed      57     29     19     22
Winter Wheat Headed        9      0      0      0

                        Crop Condition
----------------------------------------------------
              : Very :      :      :      : Excel-
    Crop      : Poor : Poor : Fair : Good :  lent
----------------------------------------------------
                          Percent

Winter Wheat       1      2     18     62      17
Pasture            1      3     19     61      16

            Soil Moisture &
    Days Suitable for Fieldwork
----------------------------------------
            : This  :  Last  :  Last
            : Week  :  Week  :  Year
----------------------------------------
                       Percent
Topsoil
 Very Short     5        4        1
 Short         27       18        4
 Adequate      57       67       58
 Surplus       11       11       37

Subsoil
 Very Short     4        2        1
 Short         20       11       10
 Adequate      70       76       69
 Surplus        6       11       20

Days Suitable  5.9      5.2      2.1
----------------------------------------

CONTACT INFORMATION
             
--Greg Preston, Director
--Andy Higgins, Agricultural Statistician
E-Mail Address: nass-in@nass.usda.gov
https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Indiana/

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                Other Agricultural Comments And News

             Early-Planted Corn & Cold Weather

Written by R.L. (Bob) Nielson, Agronoomy Dept., Purdue Unversity.
Article can be found at
www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/news/articles.12/EarlyCornColdWthr.html.

The talk among some of the regulars down at the Chat 'n Chew Cafe is
that some of their neighbors who were feeling so smug a week ago about
having planted so much corn so early are now feeling less certain of the
wisdom of their actions in light of the recent cold temperatures and
frost this week. Should they be concerned about the health of their
newly planted and, in a few cases, newly emerged crops? Well, we'll know
for certain come harvest time. But in the mean time, we can talk about
possibilities.

Newly Planted Corn

One of the risks that newly planted corn faces is that of imbibitional
chilling injury due to cold soil temperatures during the initial 24 to
36 hours after seeding when the kernels imbibe water and begin the
germination process. In response to the imbibition of water, kernels
naturally swell or expand. If the cell tissues of the kernel are too
cold, they become less elastic and may rupture during the swelling
process. Symptoms of imbibitional chilling injury include swollen
kernels that fail to germinate or arrested growth of the radicle root
and/or coleoptile following the start of germination. Instances of
chilling injury following germination during the emergence process can
also occur, often causing stunting or death of the seminal root system,
deformed elongation of the mesocotyl (the so-called "corkscrew" symptom)
and either delayed emergence or complete failure of emergence (i.e.,
leafing out underground).

   It is not clear how low soil temperatures need to be for
  imbibitional chilling or subsequent chilling injury to occur.
  Some sources simply implicate temperatures less than 50F (10C).
  Others suggest the threshold soil temperature is 41F (5C).
  Daily minimum soil temperatures at the 4-inch depth (typical
  depth for National Weather Service measurements) have certainly
  dropped into the mid- to high-40'sF in recent days, with some
  growers reporting temperatures as low as 40F at seed depth.

Newly Emerged Corn

Damage from exposure of above-ground plant tissue to frost can range
from minor leaf injury to complete death of all exposed leaf tissue.
That's the bad news. The good news is that the all-important growing
point region of a young corn plant remains below the soil surface, safe
from exposure to frost, until the V4 to V6 stages of development. That
means that the above-ground plant tissue you see in fields younger than
about V4 is composed primarily of leaves and rolled up leaf tissue in
the whorl, but does not include stalk tissue or the growing point. As
long as temperatures are not lethally cold, "simple" frost injury
usually does not literally kill such young corn plants. Damaged plants
will begin to show recovery from the whorl within 5 to 7 days, depending
on temperatures following the frost event.

   Disclaimer: Repeated frost events that re-inflict damage to
  recovering corn plants can cause permanent stunting or death.

When folks worry about the effects of cold weather on corn, they often
fail to distinguish between simple frost events and lethal cold
temperatures. Frost can occur at temperatures easily up to the high 30's
F, but lethal cold temperatures for corn are generally thought to be 28F
(-2C) or colder. Air temperatures in recent days have certainly dropped
to 28F or lower in areas of the state. Whether such cold temperatures
"penetrated" the upper inch of soil near the growing point region of
corn seedlings is not clear, but may be possible in fields where soils
are excessively dry and free from surface residue.

Bottom Line

Only time will tell whether this week's cold temperatures and frost will
cause permanent damage or death of early-planted corn around the state.
Recovery of damaged plants will usually be evident within 5 to 7 days
following such events. Come October, we will know for certain whether
this year's early planting risk takers will have "won the game" or not.

Related Reading

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2001. Symptoms of Low Temperature Injury to Corn and
Soybean. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/articles.01/Frost_Corn_Soy-0418_Gallery.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2007. Growing Points of Interest. Corny News Network,
Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GrowingPoints.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2009. Corkscrewed Corn Seedlings. Corny News Network,
Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/articles/timeless/Corkscrews.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2010. Determining Corn Leaf Stages. Corny News Network,
Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/VStageMethods.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2010. Germination Events in Corn. Corny News Network,
Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GerminationEvents.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2010. Requirements for Uniform Germination & Emergence
of Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GermEmergReq.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

Nielsen, RL (Bob). 2010. The Emergence Process in Corn. Corny News Network,
Purdue Univ. online at
https://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/Emergence.html
[URL accessed Apr 2012].

------------------------------------------------------------------------
The INDIANA CROP & WEATHER REPORT (USPS 675-770), (ISSN 0442-817X) is
issued weekly April through November by the USDA, NASS, Indiana Field
Office, 1435 Win Hentschel Blvd, Suite 110, West Lafayette IN
47906-4151. For information on subscribing, send request to above
address. POSTMASTER: Send address change to the USDA, NASS, Indiana
Field Office, 1435 Win Hentschel Blvd, Suite 110, West Lafayette IN
47906-4151.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

               Weather Information Table

               Week of April 9-15, 2012
------------------------------------------------------
               | Past Week Weather Summary Data  
               |-------------------------------------
Station        |       Air       |             | Avg  
               |   Temperature   |   Precip.   |4 in.  
               |-----------------|-------------|Soil
               | Hi | Lo |Avg|DFN| Total | Days|Temp
------------------------------------------------------
Northwest (1)                
Chalmers_5W       66   26  48  -4   0.18     1    
Francesville      71   24  47  -2   0.14     1    
Valparaiso_AP_I   66   29  49  +1   0.06     3    
Wanatah           68   22  46  -2   0.09     3    55
North Central (2)                                  
Plymouth          67   25  46  -4   0.01     1    
Rochester         66   28  47  +0   0.26     1    
South_Bend        66   27  48  +1   0.11     3    
Young_America     67   25  47  -3   0.29     1    
Northeast (3)                                      
Angola            63   30  46  +2   0.15     1    
Fort_Wayne        65   28  49  +1   0.15     2    
West Central (4)                                  
Greencastle       66   25  46  -6   1.40     2    
Perrysville       72   24  50  -1   0.37     2    60
Spencer_Ag        69   27  48  -3   0.94     2    
Terre_Haute_AFB   70   29  53  +2   0.79     2    
W_Lafayette_6NW   67   23  49  -1   0.21     1    56
Central (5)                                        
Eagle_Creek_AP    66   31  51  -1   1.00     1    
Greenfield        66   30  48  -3   0.87     2    
Indianapolis_AP   66   29  52  +0   1.20     2    
Indianapolis_SE   64   27  48  -4   0.64     2    
Marion_Ag         64   28  46  -2   0.26     2    
Tipton_Ag         66   27  48  +0   0.54     1    
East Central (6)                                  
Farmland          65   26  46  -2   0.42     1    59
New_Castle        64   26  46  -3   0.88     2    
Southwest (7)                                      
Evansville        79   31  55  -1   0.23     1    
Freelandville     70   31  51  -2   1.25     2    
Shoals_8S         71   26  49  -5   0.27     1    
Stendal           76   30  52  -2   0.50     2    
Vincennes_5NE     73   30  52  +0   0.84     2    64
South Central (8)                                  
Leavenworth       73   30  52  -2   0.16     2    
Oolitic           68   27  49  -4   1.36     2    56
Tell_City         78   31  54  -2   0.16     2    
Southeast (9)                                      
Brookville        68   29  49  -1   1.40     1    
Greensburg        66   27  49  -3   2.06     2    
Seymour           67   28  48  -4   1.86     1    
------------------------------------------------------

        Weather Information Table (continued)

        Week ending Sunday, April 15, 2012
--------------------------------------------------
               |           Accumulation          
               |---------------------------------
               |        April 1, 2012 through    
Station        |          April 16, 2012      
               |---------------------------------
               |    Precipitation  |GDD Base 50oF
               |---------------------------------
               |       |     |     |     |
               | Total | DFN | Days|Total| DFN  
--------------------------------------------------
Northwest (1)                                    
Chalmers_5W        0.50  -1.25   4     53   +14
Francesville       0.43  -1.40   2     54   +29
Valparaiso_AP_I    0.07  -1.88   4     53   +29
Wanatah            0.11  -1.78   4     33   +16
North Central (2)                              
Plymouth           0.01  -1.90   1     41   +12
Rochester          0.31  -1.48   2     46   +29
South_Bend         0.14  -1.81   5     54   +34
Young_America      0.46  -1.22   3     42   +18
Northeast (3)                                  
Angola             0.91  -0.72   3     12    +7
Fort_Wayne         0.19  -1.47   5     54   +33
West Central (4)                              
Greencastle        2.07  +0.27   4     53    +8
Perrysville        0.42  -1.51   3     92   +57
Spencer_Ag         2.33  +0.38   6     67   +29
Terre_Haute_AFB    2.25  +0.37   5    114   +67
W_Lafayette_6NW    0.46  -1.32   3     70   +44
Central (5)                                    
Eagle_Creek_AP     1.35  -0.47   3     83   +42
Greenfield         1.02  -0.93   4     50   +19
Indianapolis_AP    1.90  +0.08   5     89   +48
Indianapolis_SE    1.02  -0.78   4     55   +19
Marion_Ag          0.26  -1.54   2     38   +19
Tipton_Ag          0.79  -1.14   3     48   +29
East Central (6)                              
Farmland           0.43  -1.35   2     44   +27
New_Castle         0.88  -1.11   2     41   +22
Southwest (7)                                  
Evansville         0.48  -1.51   2    151   +69
Freelandville      1.57  -0.27   4     99   +44
Shoals_8S          0.69  -1.31   3     87   +33
Stendal            0.77  -1.42   3    119   +53
Vincennes_5NE      1.21  -0.63   3    122   +67
South Central (8)                              
Leavenworth        1.27  -1.05   5    108   +51
Oolitic            3.07  +1.10   6     74   +29
Tell_City          0.43  -1.97   3    145   +73
Southeast (9)                                  
Brookville         1.53  -0.32   3     59   +29
Greensburg         2.43  +0.47   5     60   +22
Seymour            3.30  +1.37   5     57   +12
--------------------------------------------------

Copyright 2012:  Agricultural Weather Information Service, Inc.
                All rights reserved.

DFN = Departure From Normal
GDD = Growing Degree Days.
Precipitation (Rainfall or melted snow/ice) in inches.
Precipitation Days = Days with precip of .01 inch or more.
Air Temperatures in Degrees Fahrenheit.